The terrace meal season with the barbecue will resume its right. Spring is here and everyone wants to enjoy it until the end of the summer, whether at home, at friends’ homes, or at the weekend at the campsite.
However, grilling and cooking meat and fish at high temperatures may increase the risk of high blood pressure .
Among those who regularly eat meat, chicken and fish, those who roast or roast these foods at high temperatures will be more likely to develop high blood pressure. This is reported in a preliminary study presented to the American Epidemiology and Prevention of the American Heart Association in March 2018 .
COOKING AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
The researchers analyzed cooking methods and the development of high blood pressure in people who regularly eat beef, poultry or fish.
The researchers used data from 32,925 women in the Nurses’ Health Study and 17,104 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study – which are health worker-level data. Detailed information on cooking was collected in each of these long-term studies. None of the participants had hypertension, diabetes , heart disease or cancer at the time of enrollment, but 37,123 people developed high blood pressure during an average follow-up of 12 to 16 years.
Among those who reported eating at least two servings of red meat, chicken or fish a week, the analysis found that the risk of developing high blood pressure was:
- 17% higher among those who grill, roast beef, chicken or fish more than 15 times per month, compared to less than 4 times per month.
- 15% higher among those who prefer their highly cooked food, compared to those who prefer less cooked meats.
- 17% higher among those who consumed the highest levels of heterocyclic aromatic amines compared with those with the lowest consumption. Heterocyclic aromatic amines are chemicals formed when meat proteins are carbonized or exposed to high temperatures. These are the environmental contaminants mainly present in cooked meat as well as cigarette smoke.
Importantly, the researchers noted that the relationship between cooking temperature, cooking method and high blood pressure were independent of the amount or type of food consumed.
BARBECUE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE COOKING: CONSUME WITH MODERATION
Chemicals produced by cooking high temperature meat induce oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance in animal studies, and these pathways can also lead to a high risk of high blood pressure.
Oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance affect the inner walls of blood vessels and are associated with the development of atherosclerosis , the pathological process underlying heart disease and narrowing of the arteries.
Finally, it is important to note that this study identifies a trend but does not prove the cause and the effect. The results are limited because the data came from questionnaires that did not include certain types of meat (such as pork, lamb or game) and some cooking methods (such as stewing or popping). ). Since the participants were all health professionals and especially Caucasians, the results may not be generalized to other ethnic groups.
The researchers conclude that their findings suggest that to help reduce the risk of high blood pressure, it is wiser to limit the consumption of overcooked or grilled foods. Well understood, the goal here is not to say goodbye to your barbecue (whether carnivorous or vegetarian), but simply to be well aware that the high temperature cooking and grilling are to be consumed in moderation.
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